Structure and Working Principle for Semi Trailer

Vehicle Master
Nov/18/2022

Vehicle Master will help you have a better understanding of a few of the important parts on semi trailer and how they work. It is essential that we understand the characteristics of semi trailer main beam and traction pin and fence column on side wall and cargo fence trailer. It is also very important to understand how the rope tightener on flatbed semi trailer and container locks on skeleton semi trailer work.



 


Main Frame of Semi Trailers

  • The main frame is the main body of the semi-trailer. It is welded into a frame-shaped structure by two longitudinal beams and a number of channel beams. The transverse section of the trailer longitudinal beam is an "I" shape. The material is high-strength steel plate, which has characteristics of high strength and rigidity, light weight, and so on.

  • As the frame is the main body of the semi-trailer, without the technical guidance or permission, any welding or drilling shall not be carried out on the longitudinal beam. Semi-trailers are loaded evenly, and concentrated loads are not allowed.

 

Traction Pin of Semi Trailers


structure-of-traction-pin.jpeg

                                                                            Figure 1

                        1 - Traction Plate, 2 - Bolt, 3 - Traction Pin, 4 - Traction Pin Holder


  • The traction pin is the main key part of the connection between the trailer and the lead car. The model of the traction pin should match the model of the traction seat of the tractor. The trailers produced by our company are generally equipped with a traction pin with a diameter of 89. 8mm if not specified. If required, a vehicle guide pin with a diameter of 50.8mm can also be installed.

  • The traction pin of the trailer is connected to the vehicle guide pin seat on the trailer through eight high-strength anti-loosening bolts of grade 114*45-10.9. When the vehicle is in use, sufficient lithium-based grease for automobiles should be applied to the traction pins and traction plates to ensure reliable lubrication. The traction pins should be regularly maintained and the tightness of the fastening bolts and the degree of wear of the traction pins should be checked. When the neck of the traction pin with a diameter of 89.8mm is worn to 86mm, and the neck of the traction pin with a diameter of 50.8mm is worn to 48mm, replacement will be required. When replacing, a wrench can be used to loosen the eight fastening bolts for replacement, while these fastening bolts are disposable. They cannot be reused and need to be repurchased.

 

Fence Column on Side Wall and Cargo Fence Semi Trailer

structure-of-column-post-of-fence-trailer.jpeg


                                                                            Figure 2

                1 - Column, 2 - Column Insert, 3 - Fence Hook, 4 - Hook Reinforcement, 5 - Hook Adjusting Nut


The column of the fence is composed of a column, a column inserts, and a fence lock hook (see Figure 4). The fence column is mainly used to fix the fence. During the use of the fence column, the column insert is inserted into the slot of the side beam of the trailer. When the fence is erected, the fence and the column are fixed together through the fence lock hook so that the fence and the trailer bottom plate form a box, which is convenient for loading and transporting goods. When unloading needs to open the fence, firmly support the fence, rotate the fence lock hook counterclockwise or clockwise 180°, and then hold the fence and slowly lower it. This way, the fence can be opened. When the fence is opened, the standing position of the operator should deviate from the rotation direction of the fence. When opening the fence, attention should be paid to the goods near the fence so as to avoid the goods pressing the fence, causing the fence to open suddenly and causing injury to the operator. Only when the goods have been unloaded, the fence can be opened. When opening the fence, you must hold the fence with your hands or object holder and put it down slowly. This must not be done savagely. otherwise, it will easily cause premature damage to the fence.

Note: After the trailer column and the insert box are installed, there are fastening bolts on the inside of the insert box, which should be tightened during use to prevent the column from being pulled out due to bumps, resulting in loss or other accidents.

It is not allowed to dismantle the horizontal and diagonal pull devices in the compartment without permission on the fence semi trailer or high compartment semi-trailer.

  

Rope Tightener on Flatbed Semi Trailer

rope-tightener-on-flatbed-trailer.jpeg


                                                                                Figure 3

1 - Bracket, 2 - Braking Teeth, 3 - Rope Tightening Shaft, 4 - Anti-loosening Gear, 5 - Fixing Column, 6 - Crowbar


When the goods to be shipped or the clock cloth for rain and sun protection need to be fixed, in order to fasten the ropes conveniently and securely, there are several pieces of rope tighteners welded on the edge of the trailer that can be used. The rope tighteners are mainly composed of rope tighteners. It is composed of a frame, a rope tightening shaft, and an anti-loosening wheel. (See Figure 3

Use of the rope tightening device:

Pull the braking teeth of the rope tightener (2 in Figure 3) to the tight rope state, wrap one end of the rope around the tightening rope fixing post on the rope tightening shaft (5 in Figure 3), and place the rope on the rope tightening shaft. Wind the rope tightening shaft several times, and press the end of the rope tightly, then insert the crowbar on the vehicle into the hole of the tightening rope shaft (3 in Figure 3). Turn the tightening rope shaft clockwise, and tighten the rope slowly. Slowly wind the cable on the purple rope shaft. With the shortening of the tightening rope, the tightening rope is gradually tightened. When it feels firm, stop the rotation and put the brake teeth on the anti-loosening gear (4 in Figure 3), so as to prevent the rotation of the tightening rope shaft and the loosening of the tightening rope. When the tightening rope needs to be loosened, insert the crowbar on the vehicle into the jack of the tightening rope shaft. First, rotate the tightening rope shaft a little bit clockwise, pull the brake teeth to the loose rope state, and then slowly rotate counterclockwise until the tightening rope has no tension and is completely loosened.

 

Container Locks on Skeleton and Flatbed Semi Trailer

container-lock-on-flatbed-skeleton-semi-trailer.jpg


                                                                                 Figure 4

        1 - Lock Tongue, 2 - Lock Base, 3 - Lock Tongue Rotary Handle, 4 - Lock Set Splint, 5 - Lock Set Bolt


  • The container lock is mainly used to fix the container. It is mainly composed of a lock tongue and a lock seat. The width of the lock seat is equipped with a grease nipple. After a period of use, the lubrication of the lock should be checked, and grease should be injected in time to ensure the lock rotates flexibly. According to the position of the lock and the size of the container to be shipped, the container lock is divided into two types: welded and retractable (recumbent) hidden locks (see Figure 4).

  • Welded locks are installed at the front and rear corners of the trailer frame, while the retractable (recumbent) hidden locks are installed in the middle of the trailer. The reason is that when large-sized containers are transported, the container lock installed in the middle of the trailer will interfere with the bottom side beam of the container because it is higher than the bottom frame, affecting the contact between the container and the frame, and thus affecting the fixation of the container. The movable lock can be rotated 90° as a whole and placed in the slot of the lock so that the lock is lower than the frame (see (3) in Figure 4), thus avoiding the impact on the container and facilitating the loading, unloading and positioning of the container.

 

Use of Container Locks

how-to-use-container-locks.jpg


                                                                                Figure 5


Adjust the lock longitudinally (when “Unlocked” in Figure 5), align the bottom wrapping angle of the container with the lock and stabilize it. Hold the lock tongue rotation handle to rotate the lock tongue 90 ° (when “Locked” in Figure 5) and the container can be fixed and locked.

Note: The skeleton car lock is a fixed container device, not a load bearing force. Therefore, users must pay attention when installing or making their own containers. The lock beam or lock device should not bear any weight of the container and the goods in the box. Otherwise, it will cause the lock or lock beam to deform and crack.

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